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Writing Scientific Papers - Colby College Writing Scientific Papers - Colby College
a guide to writing scientific papers Scientific experiments are demanding, exciting endeavors, but, to have an impact, results must be communicated to others. A research paper is a method of communication, an attempt to tell others about some specific dat

Scientific paper writing College

Although you may read some general background references (encyclopedias, textbooks, lab manuals, style manuals, etc. Moreover, the of an effect may be very telling in many situations. The structure of the introduction can be thought of as an inverted triangle - the broadest part at the top representing the most general information and focusing down to the specific problem you studied.

Instead, it tells how your study has moved us forward from the place you left us at the end of the introduction. Avoid repetitive paragraph structures. Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together.

Therefore, enough key information (e. For example, did you use mouse pups or adults? Seedlings or mature plants? Characteristics of the site pertinant to the study aims. One reason for using this format is that it is a means of efficiently communicating scientific findings to the broad community of scientists in a uniform manner.

Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual ) your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. You may use the active voice to a certain extent, although this section requires more use of third person, passive constructions than others.

If you have performed experiments at a particular location or lab because it is the only place to do it, or one of a few, then you should note that in your methods and identify the lab or facility. Watch out for wordy phrases be concise and make your points clearly. Here the author assumes the reader has basic knowledge of microbiological techniques and has deleted other superfluous information.

What literature should you look for in your review of what we know about the problem? - the journals that publish original research articles. An appendix is an each appendix should be identified by a roman numeral in sequence, e. Seeds exposed to the 2-day treatment had the highest cumulative germination (84), 1. Once the scientific context is decided, then youll have a good sense of what level and type of general information with which the introduction should begin. For some studies, age may be an important factor.


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Scientific paper writing College

Journal-Style Scientific Paper - Bates College
Most journal-style scientific papers are subdivided into the following sections: Title, Authors and Affiliation, Abstract, Introduction, Methods, Results, Discussion, Acknowledgments, and Literature Cited, which parallel the experimental process. This is
Scientific paper writing College Report the of differences ( difference, how many times, etc, Do your results provide answers to your testable hypotheses? If so, how do you interpret your findings? Do your findings agree with what others have shown? If not, do they suggest an alternative explanation or perhaps a unforseen design flaw in your experiment (or theirs?) given your conclusions, what is our new understanding of the problem you investigated and outlined in the introduction? If warranted, what would be the next step in your study, e. The style in this section should read as if you were verbally describing the conduct of the experiment. Abstract useful to someone who may to reference your work. Similarly, the first figure is figure 1, the next figure 2, Similarly. The experimental design and procedure are sometimes most efficiently presented as an integrated unit, because otherwise it would be difficult to split them up. Name or briefly describe the basic methodology used without going into excessive detail-be sure to indicate the key techniques used. Many important discoveries can be traced to bad data. A complete format list for virtually all types of publication may be found in. Limit your statements concerning each segment of the paper (i. The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the key results and conclusions.
  • How to Write A Paper in Scientific Journal Style and Format ...


    Why did you choose this kind of experiment or experimental design? What are the system? What advantages does it confer in answering the particular question(s) you are posing? Do not discuss here the actual ) your readers will be quite familiar with the usual techniques and approaches used in your field. This is accomplished with a general review of the ) but should not include very specific, lengthy explanations that you will probably discuss in greater detail later in the. For example, in reporting a study of the effect of an experimental diet on the skeletal mass of the rat, consider first giving the data on skeletal mass for the rats fed the if you did not get the anticipated results, it may mean your hypothesis was incorrect and needs to be reformulated, or perhaps you have stumbled onto something unexpected that warrants further study. Anova (with tukeys post hoc test) or a kruskal-wallis test (with dunns post hoc test). Once you have the completed abstract, check to make sure that the information in the abstract completely agrees with what is written in the paper.

    The passive voice will likely dominate here, but use the active voice as much as possible. For example, if you were studying a membrane-bound transport channel and you discovered a new bit of information about its mechanism, you might present a diagram showing how your findings helps to explain the channels mechanism. In scientific studies, the use of this word implies that a statistical test was employed to make a decision about the data in this case the test indicated a larger difference in mean heights than you would expect to get by chance alone. For example state briefly how you approached the problem (e. Always report your results with parenthetical reference to the statistical conclusion that supports your finding (if statistical tests are being used in your course).

    The title is not a section, but it is necessary and important. In this example the reader will have no clue as to what the various tubes represent without having to constantly refer back to some previous point in the methods. The discussion will always connect to the by way of the question(s) or hypotheses you posed and the literature you cited, but it does not simply repeat or rearrange the introduction. So, the first figure in the appendix would be figure 1, the first table would be table 1, and so forth. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, not by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e. If your abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? The abstract is only text. The turntable was rotated 90 degrees by hand. Write your abstract using concise, but complete, sentences, and get to the point quickly. Authors usually write the text of the results section based upon the sequence of tables and figures. Someone else should be able to go to the exact location of your study site if they want to repeat or check your work, or just visit your study area.

    Note: Many of the pages are now available in printer friendly PDF format. Look for the link on the top each page below the title.

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    The loop was moved lightly back and forth over the agar to spread the culture. Make sure to although you might occasionally include in this section tables and figures which help explain something you are discussing, they must not contain new data (from your study) that should have been presented earlier. They might be flow diagrams, accumulation of data from the literature, or something that shows how one type of data leads to or correlates with another, etc. Very frequently the experimental design and data collection procedures for an experiment cannot be separated and must be integrated together. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations Buy now Scientific paper writing College

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    Use the active voice when possible, but much of it may require passive constructions. Another reason, perhaps more important than the first, is that this format allows the paper to be read at several different levels. Learn, as soon as possible, how to find the rather than depending on reference books. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses (usually hypothesis tests) were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance. Authors if an instructor or other individual critiqued the draft prior to evaluation) and any that supported the research.

    . It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations Scientific paper writing College Buy now

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    Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. In general, provide enough (how much, how long, when, etc. An appendix is an each appendix should be identified by a roman numeral in sequence, e. Be sure to state the conclusions that can be drawn from your results in light of these considerations. Some examples of material that might be put in an appendix (not an exhaustive list) explanation of formulas, either already known ones, or especially if you have invented some statistical or other mathematical procedures for data analysis.

    Figures and tables are often found in an appendix. A major function of the text is to provide clarifying information Buy Scientific paper writing College at a discount

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    Begin your introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. You may want to identify certain types of equipment by vendor name and brand or category (e. Moreover, the of an effect may be very telling in many situations. It is not necessary (or even desirable) to use the words hypothesis or null hypothesis, since these are usually implicit if you clearly state your purpose and expectations. For example, controls, treatments, what variable(s) were measured, how many samples were collected, replication, the final form of the data, etc.

    You would then calculate the descriptive statistics for those samples (mean, sd, n, range, etc) and plot these numbers. In general, the answer is the key result Buy Online Scientific paper writing College

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    In either case you should discuss reasons for similarities and differences between yours and others findings. Always identify treatments by the variable or treatment name, not by an ambiguous, generic name or number (e. Use descriptive words that you would associate strongly with the content of your paper the molecule studied, the organism used or studied, the treatment, the location of a field site, the response measured, etc. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability this is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. An appendix is an each appendix should be identified by a roman numeral in sequence, e.

    Remember to use the throughout - the work being reported is done, and was performed in the past, not the future Buy Scientific paper writing College Online at a discount

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    The results section always begins with text, reporting the key results and referring to your figures and tables as you proceed. If your abstract was the only part of the paper you could access, would you be happy with the information presented there? The abstract is only text. A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability this is a very long and wordy description of a common, simple procedure. Cite, instead, articles that reported specific results relevant to your study. Location data must be as precise as possible grover nature preserve, mi sw grover, maine rather than grover nature preserve or grover.

    The take home point here is that the scientific format helps to insure that at whatever level a person reads your paper (beyond title skimming), they will likely get the key results and conclusions Scientific paper writing College For Sale

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    In a course where statistical tests are not employed, you would visually inspect these plots. What did we know about it before i did this study? How will this study advance our knowledge? Use the active voice as much as possible. The results section should be that should be sequenced to present your key findings in a logical order. The a the function of the results section is to objectively present your key (tables and figures). The bacteria were then incubated at 37 c for 24 hr.

    When you are first learning to write in this format it is okay, and actually preferable, to use a pat statement like, the purpose of this study was to. Ay 1995 pool of biology majors note that the report of the key result (shown in blue) would be identical in a paper written for a course in which statistical testing is not employed - the section shown in red would simply not appear except reference to the figure For Sale Scientific paper writing College

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    Begin your introduction by clearly identifying the subject area of interest. Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action this results in very lengthy, wordy passages. Figure or table - only the key result or trends that each conveys. An appendix contains information that is non-essential to understanding of the paper, but may present information that further clarifies a point without burdening the body of the presentation. Notice that the outcome of a statistical analysis is not a key result, but rather an analytical report your results so as to provide as much information as possible to the reader about the nature of differences or relationships.

    In the mouse behavior paper, for example, you would begin the introduction at the level of mating behavior in general, then quickly focus to mouse mating behaviors and then hormonal regulation of behavior Sale Scientific paper writing College

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